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Tame’ Food Additives

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The following is a list of common food additives which are, or may be, tame’. The phrase, "may be derived from tame’ animal sources," or a variant thereof does not imply that the additive is un-kosher. It indicates that the source of the additive must be learned in order to determine whether or not it is kosher.

Do you know of any additional additives that need to be on this list? Please e-mail them to us: tame’ additives

· Acetic Acid Esters of Glycerides of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Acetoglycerides - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Acetoolein - Acetoolein may be obtained from animal fats which may include tame’ fats.

· Acetostearin - Used as a protective coating for foods, Acetostearin is one of the glycerides, and may be obtained from tame’ fats.

· Albumin - derived from bird eggs, animal blood.

· Ammonium Oleate - Dervied from Oleic Acid, it is used as an emulsifying agent - may be obtained from tame’ fats.

· Amylase - Amylase is a digestive enzyme, often added to food supplements. Amylase may be derived from hog stomachs. Only vegetarian amylase is kosher.

· Animal charcoal (bone black) - charred animal bones; used in the filtration in the manufacture of sucrose (cane or beet sugar) to separate it from the molasses, also used as a black coloring in confectionary.

· Asparagine - see Amino Acids.

· Vitamin B - Any B Vitamin may be derived from tame’ animals. Only vegetarian forms are kosher.

· Betaine (trimethylglycine/trimethylaminoacetic acid.) usually derived from beets, but occurs also in animal substances.

· BHA - Butylated Hydroxanisole/Butylated Hydroxtoluene. BHA is used as an antioxidant in cereals, stablizers, shortenings, and potato flakes. It is generally synthesized from corn oil, but may come from other tame’ sources.

· Calcium Formate - May be dervied from tame’ animal sources.

· Calcium Lactate - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Calcium 5'-Ribonucleotides - see inosinates.

· Calcium Pantothenate - Calcium pantothenate is often dervied from animal liver - this may include tame’ animals.

· Calcium Salt of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Calcium sucrate or saccharate - made of 3 parts sugar to 1 part calcium hydroxide, is used to standardize the potassium iodide of iodized table salt and a neutralizer in sour cream.

· Canthaxanthin - A color additive that may be derived from crustaceans or tropical birds.

· Caramel - burnt sugar; used as a coloring agent.

· Carbon (black) - This is of particular concern with regards to water filters (i.e., Pitcher filters, sink attachment filters, shower filters etc.,) Carbon may be derived from animal sources. Carbon is also an element of certain foods.

· Casein - a milk protein; sometimes obtained by the use of rennet.

· Catalase - Catalase is an enzyme that may be derived from plant or animal sources - these sources may include tame’ animals.

· Cetyl Esters - Cetyl esters are dervied from the sperm whale.

· Cholic Acid -derived from the bile of animals; used as an emulsifying agent in dried egg whites.

· Choline Bitartarate - A thick syrup found in most animal tissue, it is used in most B Vitamin supplements. See B Vitamins.

· Citric Acid Esters of Glycerides of Fatty Acids - May be derived from
tame’ animal sources.

· Carmine (Cocineal) - Carmine is a red-pink pigment that is derved from an insect (coccus cacti). It is often found in red-apple sauce, strawberry flavored drinks, fruit cocktail, meats, spices, candies and pastries.

· Cholic Acid - Cholic acid is used as an emulsifier in dried egg-whites. It is derived from animal bile.

· Civet - Civet is used in beverages, candy, pastries, gum and ice cream. It is derived from the unctuous secretion from the gland recepticles between the anus and genitalia of both male and female African Civet-cats (Viverra civetta).

· Cochineal - see Carmine.

· Cyanocobalamin - Vitamin B12, often derived from intestinal microorganisms. See B Vitamins.

· Dextran - a term applied to polysaccharides produced by bacteria growing on sugar; used as a foam stabilizer in many American beers, in soft-center confections, and as a substitute for barley malt.

· Eicosapentaenoic Acid. EPA is derived from fish. These fish may be
tame’.

· Emulsifiers - Emulsifiers may be derived from tame’ animals sources, though most are from soya lecithin. However, if soya lecithin is not specified as the emulsifier, assume that the emulsifier is tame’.

· Ethyl Oleate - see Oleic Acid.

· Fats/Fatty Acids - Fats may be derived from any number of animal and plant sources. Any food with a simple listing of "fats" on the ingredient list, without specification, should be considered tame’.

· Ferrous Lactate - tame’ animals may be used to obtain Ferrous Lactate.

· Folic Acid - tame’ animals may be used to obtain Folic Acid.

· Formic Acid - tame’ animals may be used to obtain Formic Acid.

· "Kosher" Gelatin - Some Rabbinic authorities will provide
certification to products that contain gelatin derived from tame’ animals on the grounds that the gelatin was first dried. They contend that gelatin in this state becomes "wood."

· Gluconates - salts of gluconic acid, which is derived from glucose (which may be derived from the hydrolysis of sucrose -see sugar).

· Glucose Glutamate - Glucose glutamate is used as a humectant in hand creams and lotions. It may be obtained from animal blood.

· Glutamic Acid - While glutamic acid is usually obtained from vegetable sources, it may be obtained from tame’ animals. Most commonly used as a salt substitute.

· Glutaric Acid - Glutaric acid may be obtained from non-kasher animal
sources. It is normally used in cosmetics.

· Glycerides of Fatty Acids - see Fatty Acids.

· Glycerine/Glycerin/Glycerol - Glycerol is an alcohol that is produced as a byproduct of soap making; it is dervied from fat. The most common fats used in soap making are lard and tallow. Animal glycerol should be considered tame’.

· Glycerol Esters - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Glyceryl Distearate - May be dervied from tame’ animal sources.

· Glyceryl Monostearate - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Glycine - Glycine is derived from gelatin. Glycine dervied from vegetable gelatin is kosher. All other forms of glycine should be considered tame’.

· Glycogen - Glycogen, used as a violet dye, is an animal starch found
especially in liver and muscle tissue; it may be obtained from tame’ animals.

· Glycyrrhetinyl Stearate - see Stearic Acid.

· Guanosine 5'-disodium Phosphate, sodium guanylate, disodium guanylate - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Gum Base - Gum base may be dervied from any number of sources, both animal and vegetable. Only gum base that is specifically listed as vegetarian should be considered kosher.

· Hydroxyoctacosanyl Hydrostearate - see Stearic Acid.

· Hydroxyphenyl Glycinamide - see Glycine.

· Inosinates - salts of inosinic acid, which is derived from meat extract and dried sardines; used as a flavor intensifier.

· Invert Sugar (Inversol, Nulomoline, Colorose) - a mixture of 50% glucose (dextrose) and 50% fructose (levulose), produced by inversion of sucrose (see sugar).

· Isobutyl Stearate - see Stearic Acid.

· Isobutyl Isostearate - see Stearic Acid.

· Isostearic Acid - see Stearic Acid.

· Lactic Acid - produced commercially by fermentation of whey, cornstarch, potatoes, and molasses. used as an acidulant in beverages, candy, olives, dried egg whites, cottage cheese, confections, bread, rolls, buns, cheese products, frozen desserts, sherbets, ices, fruit jelly, butter, preserves, jams, infant formula, chewing gum, ice cream, pickles, and often in the American brewing industry.

· Lactic Acid Esters of Glycerides of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Lactoflavin - see B Vitamins.

· Lactoglycerides - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Lactose (milk sugar) - produced from whey.

· Lactylated fatty acid esters of gylcerol and propane-1,2-diol - May be
derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Lactylic Stearate - see Stearic Acid.

· Lactylated Glycerides - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Lecithin - commercially isolated from eggs, soybeans, corn, and egg yolk. Only lecithin from syobeans or corn is kosher.

· Linoelic Acid - see Oleic Acid.

· L-Cysteine. L-Cysteine is an ammino acid derived from human (female cadavers), horse or synthetic sources. See Amino Acids.

· L-Histadine & DL-Histadine - an amino acid derived from proteins - see Amino Acids.

· L-Isoleucine & DL-Isoleucine - an amino acid; derived commercially from beet sugar (see sugar).

· L-Leucine & DL-Leucine - an amino acid; isolated commercially from gluten, casein (see casein), and keratin (a protein found in animal skin, hair, nails, hooves, and horns).

· Lutien - an amino acid may be derived from animal or vegetable sources.

· L-Lysine, L and DL - L-Lysine, an amino acid, is derived from casein (a milk protein), fibrin (a protien used in the clotting of blood) and blood. If the lysine is dervied from casein, it is kosher. All other forms of lysine are tame’.

· Magneseum Salt of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Mesoinositol Hexaphosphate - Derived from tame’ animal sources. Not Kosher.

· Methionine - see Amino Acids.

· Methyl Ester of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Mixed Acetic and Tartaric Acid Esters of Mono and Diglycerides of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Modified Starch - starch altered chemically; among the chemicals that may be used to alter the starch is 1-octenyl succinic anhydride (see succinic acid).

· Molasses - Molasses is a by product of the sugar refining process. The sugar refining process involves the use of charred animal bones (as a filtration medium), animal fats (as defoamers), and sometimes animal blood (in the bleaching process). Molasses is genereally tame’.

· Mono and Diacetyltartaric Acid Esters of Glycerides of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Mono and Diglycerides - Mono and Diglycerides may be derived from animal or vegetable sources. Only the vegetarian forms are kosher. Mono and Diglycerides do not need to be mentioned on the ingredient labels of processed foods. Pepper Cream is a common food additive that requires the presence of di-glycerides.

· Monopotassium Phosphate - Monosodium phosphate, an emulsifier, may be dervied from tame’ animal sources.

· Musk - dried secretions from the perianal glandular sac of the Central Asian Musk Deer; as musk ambrette is used in fruit, cherry, maple, mint, nut, black walnut, pecan, spice, and vanilla flavorings for beverages, ice creams, ices, candy, baked goods, gelatin desserts, pudding, and chewing gum; as musk tonquin is used in fruit, maple, and molasses flavorings for beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods, and syrups; as musk ketone is used in chewing gum and candy.

· Myrisitic Acid - This fatty acid may be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Niacin - see B Vitamins.

· Norvaline - see Amino Acids.

· Oleic Acid - Oleic acid may be derived from animal or vegetable sources. Only vegetarian forms should be considered kosher.

· Oleates - salts of Oleic acid (see Oleic acid).

· Oxygall (Ox bile) - used as an emulsifier in dried egg whites.

· Oxystearin - a mixture of glycerides (see) of partially oxidized stearic
acids (see) and other fatty acids (see); occurs in animal fat; used in the manufacture of pill coatings, as a crystallization inhibitor in cottonseed and soybean cooking, in salad oil blends, as a defoamer in the production of beet sugar (see sugar) and "nutritional" brewer’s yeast.

· Palmitic Acid - see Stearic Acid.

· Palmitoyl Hydrolyzed Milk Protein - see Stearic Acid.

· d-Pantothenamide - made synthetically from royal jelly of the queen bee, "nutritional" brewer’s yeast, and molasses (see sugar).

· Partially Delactosed Whey -the result of the partial removal of lactose (see) from the milk ingredient whey (see); used increasingly as a cheap substitute for nonfat dry milk; used in processed cheese foods and spreads.

· Partially Demineralized and Delactosed Whey - the result of the partial removal o some minerals as well as lactose from whey (see Partially Delactosed Whey).

· Pepsin - Pepsin is obtained most often from hog stomachs; it is
tame’.

· Peptones - Peptones may be dervied from tame’ animal sources.

· Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Polyglycerol Esters of Dimerized Fatty Acids of Soy Bean Oil - see Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Polyglycerol Esters of Polycondesnsed Fatty Acids of Castor Oil - see
Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate - May be dervied from tame’ animal sources.

· Polyoxyl (40) stearate - see Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate.

· Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate, polysorbate 20, tween 20, may be derived from animals.

· Polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-oleate, polysorbate 80, tween 80, may be derived from animals.

· Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate, polysorbate 40, tween 40, may be derived from animals.

· Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate, polysorbate 60, tween 60, may be derived from animals.

· Polyoxyethylene sorbitan tristearate, polysorbate 65, tween 65, may be derived from animals.

· Potassium Lactate - Potassium Lactate may be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Potassium Salt of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Propane-1,2-diol Esters of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Propyl Gallate - Propyl gallate, a preservative, is produced by insects.

· Propylene Glycos Esters of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Resinous glaze - Lac is the generic name for the natural resin secreted by the lac beetle that thrives on various host trees and shrubs in India, Burma, Indochina, and Siam. The lac beetle converts the sap of the trees into resin which is gathered, crushed, washed, and dried and used in food glaze. This process is very similar to a bee's production of honey. The process is called transferred nectar. It is definately tame’; however certain Rabbinic authorities will permit its inclusion in food because they consider it non-edible, and therefore, not food.

· Riboflavin - see B Vitamins.

· Riboflavin 5'-phosphate - see B Vitamins.

· Serum Albumin - Serum albumin is derived from blood.

· Sodium Formate - May be dervied from tame’ animal sources.

· Sodium Lactate - May be dervied from tame’ animal sources.

· Sodium 5'-inosinate - Derived from tame’ animal sources. Not Kosher.

· Sodium 5'-ribonucleotide - May be dervied from tame’ animal sources.

· Sodium Salt of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Sodium Stearoyl-2-lactylate - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Sorbitan Monolaurate, span 20 - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Sorbitan Mono-oleate, span 80 - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Sorbitan Monopalmitate, span 40 - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Sorbitan Monostearate - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Sorbitan Tristearate - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Sperm Oil - Sperm oil is derived from sperm whales. It is not kosher.

· Stearic Acid - Stearic Acid is a common component of many food additives: Calcium Stearate, Magnesum Stearate, Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate, Oxysterins Polysorbates (60, 65, 80), Sorbitan Monostearate, Tween and Span. Stearic acid may be derived from animal sources. Only the vegetarian forms are kosher.

· Stearyl tartrate - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Sucroglycerides - May be derived from tame’ animal sources.

· Sucrose/Sugar - Most sugars are processed using charred animal bones (as a filter), animal fat (as a defoamer), and sometimes animal blood (in the bleaching process). Therefore, most sugars should be considered tame’.

· Sucrose Esters of Fatty Acids - see Sucrose/Sugar and Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Tartaric Acid Esters of Glycerides of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Tallow, Beef Fat, Animal Shortenting - Despite the prohibitions in the Torah of consuming Helev [solid white fat], some Rabbinic authorities will permit the presence of helev in the foods they certify.

· Thermally Oxidized Soya Bean Oil Interacted with Mono- and Di-glycerides of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.

· Turmeric - Turmeric is often combined with animal glycerides (mono or di).

· Vanilla - Vanilla is often combined with animal glycerine. See Glycerine.